Glossary of terms relating to the ARDC Party Infrastructure Project


Full name




Australian National Data Service


“In 2008 the Federal Department of Industry, Innovation, Science & Research (DIISR) entered into an initial agreement with Monash University that provided funding to establish the Australian National Data Service (ANDS) under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS). Subsequently, in 2009 DIISR entered into an additional agreement with Monash University that provides access to funds from the Education Investment Fund (EIF). The amount provided was $48 million over two years. This funding has been provided to conduct a “project to create and develop an Australian Research Data Commons (ARDC) [see this glossary] infrastructure”. This funding stream is to be expended over two years ending 30 June 2011. In order to create the required ARDC infrastructure Monash University through ANDS will subcontract the necessary work to suitably qualified organizations that will develop and produce the required infrastructure.”

-           from the ANDS website


The Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification

The Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification (ANZSRC) is the collective name for a set of three related classifications developed for use in the measurement and analysis of research and experimental development (R&D) undertaken in Australia and New Zealand.   There are three classifications in the ANZSRC:

Type of Activity (TOA); Fields of Research (FOR); Socio-economic Objective (SEO).


Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification-Fields of Research

Known as FOR Codes, the ANZSRC-FOR classification allows research and experimental development activity to be categorised according to the field of research. The categories in the classification include major fields and related sub-fields of research and emerging areas of study investigated by businesses, universities, tertiary institutions, national research institutions and other organisations. The FOR is a hierarchical classification with three levels, namely Divisions (2 digits), Groups (4 digits) and Fields (6 digits). Each level is identified by a unique number.


Division 09 Engineering

Group 0901 Aerospace engineering

Fields 090101 Aerodynamics (excl. Hypersonic Aerodynamics)


A researcher may be associated with one or more ANZSRC-FOR codes.,Fields+of+Research?OpenDocument#112714291310995051


Australian Research Council



The ARC is a statutory authority within the Australian Government's Innovation, Industry, Science and Research (IISR) portfolio. Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community .”


Australian Research Data Commons

“A cohesive collection of research resources from all research institutions, to make better use of Australia's research outputs.”

“The Australian Research Data Commons (ARDC) will support the discovery of, and access to, research data held in Australian universities, publicly funded research agencies and government organisations for the use of research. The Australian National Data Service (ANDS) has a charter to build the ARDC. It will enable the construction of a range of ICT utilities to capitalise on and ensure greater use and re-use of existing data resources, as well as better management of new data generated in Australian research.”

– from the ANDS website

Australian Research Data Commons (ARDC) Party Infrastructure Project (PIP)


The Australian Research Data Commons (ARDC) Party Infrastructure Project is a National Library of Australia (NLA) project funded by the Australian National Data Service (ANDS) . A project aimed to improve the discovery of research outputs and data through persistently identifying Australian researchers and research organisations.


Dublin Core

Dublin Core is a metadata element set . An xml compatible format used by contributors whose data is harvested to People Australia. Records can also be exported from People Australia in DC format.


Digital Object Identifier Name




Encoded Archival Context—Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families (EAC-CPF) - The EAC-CPF Schema is a standard for encoding contextual information about persons, corporate bodies, and families related to archival materials using Extensible Markup Language (XML).


EAC-CPF replaced EAC-2004 and is the current XML schema used in People Australia



Encoded Archival Context beta (2004 version) is a schemer for representing research identities.


EAC- 2004 has been replaced in People Australia by EAC-CPF




Friend of a Friend

FOAF is a machine-readable ontology describing persons, their activities and their relations to other people and objects. FOAF is a descriptive vocabulary expressed using the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL).


Fields of Research

See ‘ANZSRC-FOR’ in this glossary



Identification Numbers ; Identifiers ; Persistent identifiers


For a breakdown of the different types of persistent identifiers

See separate glossary below

A persistent identifier is a name for a resource which will remain the same regardless of where the resource is located. Therefore links to the resource will continue to work even if it is moved.









‘infor’ URI scheme

Administered by OCLC on behalf of NISO


International Standard Identifier for Libraries

An ISIL identifies an organisation, i.e. a library, an archive, a museum or a related organization, or one of its subordinate units, which is responsible for an action or service in an informational environment (e.g. creation of machine-readable information)


They are mostly based on existing MARC Organisation Codes (also known as National Union Catalogue symbols)



Open Researcher and Contributor ID

ORCID, Inc. is a non-profit organization dedicated to solving the name ambiguity problem in scholarly research and brings together the leaders of the most influential universities, funding organizations, societies, publishers and corporations from around the globe.   ORCID, Inc. aims to solve the author/contributor name ambiguity problem in scholarly communications by creating a central registry of unique identifiers for individual researchers and an open and transparent linking mechanism between ORCID and other current author ID schemes. These identifiers, and the relationships among them, can be linked to the researcher’s output to enhance the scientific discovery process and to improve the efficiency of research funding and collaboration within the research community.”

-           From the ORCID website

ORCID is still in the project stages and no information is yet available on the format of ORCID identifiers or who/how many in the Australian research community will take them up.


Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting

The OAI-Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) defines a mechanism for harvesting records containing metadata from repositories. It is based on the open standards HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol) and XML (Extensible Markup Language) and must be in an agreed format, ie Dublin Core, EAC-2004



OWL Web Ontology Language

The OWL Web Ontology Language is designed for use by applications that need to process the content of information instead of just presenting information to humans. OWL facilitates greater machine interpretability of Web content than that supported by XML, RDF, and RDF Schema (RDF-S) by providing additional vocabulary along with a formal semantics. OWL has three increasingly-expressive sublanguages: OWL Lite, OWL DL, and OWL Full.


Party Administration Tool

PAT is a web based database that interoperates with People Australia. It allows for the maintenance of People Australia records and the management of party records by authorised contributors.



Party record


A record about a person or organisation



P ersistent U niform R esource L ocators

PURLs are Web addresses that act as permanent identifiers in the face of a dynamic and changing Web infrastructure. Instead of resolving directly to Web resources, PURLs provide a level of indirection that allows the underlying Web addresses of resources to change over time without negatively affecting systems that depend on them. This capability provides continuity of references to network resources that may migrate from machine to machine for business, social or technical reasons.


Research Data Australia

Research Data Australia is a set of web pages describing data collections produced by or relevant to Australian researchers. It is designed to promote visibility of research data collections in search discovery engines such as Google and Yahoo, to encourage their re-use. It is the face of the ANDS Register My Data service.


Resource Description Framework

RDF is a standard model for data interchange on the Web. RDF extends the linking structure of the Web to use URIs to name the relationship between things as well as the two ends of the link (this is usually referred to as a “triple”). Using this simple model, it allows structured and semi-structured data to be mixed, exposed, and shared across different applications.  


Registry Interchange Format- Collections and Services

The RIF-CS Schema was developed as a data interchange format for supporting the submission of collections metadata to the ANDS Collection Registry [and from this, displayed in Research Data Australia]. It is based on ISO2146 but only includes elements needed for a collection service registry and so is not full binding to the standard.”

-           From the ANDS website

ANDS has identified four kinds of related objects and entities that need to be described in the ARDC, namely: collections, parties, activities and services. To participate in the ARDC, metadata about these objects and entities, known as registry objects, needs to be provided by research organisations to the ANDS Collections Registry and Research Data Australia. Each registry object requires a unique key prior to submission to the ANDS services. ANDS has a strong preference for the use of persistent identifiers for keys and recommends use of NLA party IDs for party records used in Research Data Australia.


Contributors to the Party Infrastructure can provide their records in RIF-CS format. Records can also be exported from People Australia in RIF-CS format.


Note: In October RIF-CS version 1.2 was released. Currently the party infrastructure only supports RIF-CS 1.0.1 but we are planning to implement support for 1.2 ASAP.


Search and retrieval via URL

SRU is a standard XML-focused search protocol for Internet search queries, URI’s, utilizing CQL (Contextual Query Language)




Uniform Resource Identifier

A string of characters used to identify a name or a resource on the Internet. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network (typically the World Wide Web) using specific protocols




Virtual International Authority File

VIAF is a joint project of several national libraries, implemented and hosted by OCLC. The project's goal is to lower the cost and increase the utility of library authority files by matching and linking the authority files of national libraries, and then making that information available on the Web.










Glossary of terms relating to identifiers


Australian Business Number


ANBD Number

Australian National Bibliographic Database number (Libraries Australia)

The ANBD number is a unique persistent identifier assigned to each record in the Australian National Bibliographic Database (Libraries Australia)



Australian Research Council Identification

Example of an ARC ID: V30029

The ARC administers grants to researchers. Each successful grant gets an ARC ID. An identification number allocated to researchers, per funding grant, by the Australian Research Council. (I think they are an identification number allocated when there is an application for a funding grant)

??- emailed Emmi for more info (25/11/10)



Archival Resource Key

A persistent identifier scheme from the California Digital Library at the University of California.





System Identifier


National Health Medical and Research Council Grant Identifier

The NHMRC identification number assigned to the grant. “ NHMRC invites all researchers in Australia to apply for funding through schemes ranging from scholarships to research programs.”





NLA party identifier; NLA persistent identifier


NLA Party ID – this is the NLA persistent identifier assigned to party identity records. It is visible in Trove People and Organisations zone plus a range of NLA machine-to-machine interfaces.



Open Researcher and Contributor ID


No examples as ORCID is still in the developmental stage of the project

A unique identifier for each researcher participating in the ORCID initiative (see this glossary).


P ersistent U niform R esource L ocators

PURLs are Web addresses that act as permanent identifiers in the face of a dynamic and changing Web infrastructure. Instead of resolving directly to Web resources, PURLs provide a level of indirection that allows the underlying Web addresses of resources to change over time without negatively affecting systems that depend on them. This capability provides continuity of references to network resources that may migrate from machine to machine for business, social or technical reasons.



“ResearcherID is a global, multi-disciplinary scholarly research community. With a unique identifier assigned to each author in ResearcherID, you can eliminate author misidentification and view an author’s citation metrics instantly. Search the registry to find collaborators, review publication lists
and explore how research is used around the world.” Maintained by Thomson Reuters.


Researcher ID: A-1009-2008

Researcher ID URL:

Scopus Identification number


The Scopus Author Identifier functionality assigns a unique number to authors in Scopus. Scopus Author Identifier functionality distinguishes between these names by assigning each author in Scopus a unique number and grouping together all of the documents written by that author.

Example: 7101901209